2. Manufacturing methods

2.1. Powder Metallurgy

 

Muriel J, Sanchez Roa A, Barona Mercado W, and Sanchez Sthepa H (2009). “Steel and gray iron foam by powder metallurgical synthesis.” Suplemento de la Revista Latinoamericana de Metalurgia y Materiales. 2009. S1(4):1435-1440.

 

Gülsoy H Ö and German R M (2008). “Sintered foams from precipitation hardened stainless steel powder.” Powder Metallurgy 51(4):350-353.

 

Runkle J C (1999). “Ultra-light structural steel from metal foams.” Office of Naval Research. N00014-99-M-0022.

 

2.2. Hollow Spheres

 

Neville B P and Rabiei A (2008). “Composite metal foams processed through powder metallurgy.” Materials and Design 29:388-396.

 

Daxner T, Tomas R W, and Bitsche R D (2007). “Mechanics of semi-expanded hollow sphere foams.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.169-172.

 

Vendra L J, and Rabiei A (2007). “A study on aluminum-steel composite metal foam processed by casting.” Materials Science and Engineering A 465:59-67.

 

Reinfried M, Waag U, Stephani G, and Kieback B (2004). “Closed cell metal-hollow-sphere-structures made by expandable polysterene technology.” Proceedings of the Symposium on Cellular Metals and Polymers (CMaP). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), 12-14 October 2004, Fürth, Germany, p.93-96.

 

2.3. Other Processes

 

Weise J, Beltrame Derner Silva G, and Salk N (2010). “Production and properties of syntactic steel and iron foams with micro glass bubbles.” (unknown)

 

Kostornov A G, Kirichenko O V, Brodnikovskii N P, Guslienko Y A, and Klimenko V N (2008). “High-porous materials made from alloy steel fibers: production, structure, and mechanical properties.” Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics. 47(5-6):295-298.

 

Murakami T, Ohara K, Narushima T, and Ouchi C (2007). “Development of a new method for manufacturing iron foam using gases generated by reduction of iron oxide.” Materials Transactions 48(11):2937-2944.

 

Murakami T, Ohara K, Narushima T, and Ouchi C (2007). “New manufacturing method of iron foam using precursor made of iron, graphite and hematite powders.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.145-148.

 

Tuchinskiy L (2007). “Novel manufacturing process for metal and ceramic honeycombs.” Advanced Engineering Materials 10(3):219-222.

 

Verdooren A, Chan HM, Grenestedt JL, Harmer MP, and Caram HS (2005). “Fabrication of low density ferrous metallic foams by reduction of chemically bonded ceramic foams.” Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 89(10):3101-3106.

 

Verdooren A, Chan HM, Grenestedt JL, Harmer MP, and Caram HS (2005). “Fabrication of low density ferrous metallic foams by reduction of ceramic foam precursors.” Journal of the Materials Science. 40:4333-4339.

 

Tuchinskiy L (2005). “Novel fabrication technology for metal foams.” Journal of Advanced Materials. 37(3):60-65.

 

Adler J, Standke G, and Stephani G (2004). “Sintered open-celled metal foams made by replication method - manufacturing and properties on example of 316L stainless steel foams.” Proceedings of the Symposium on Cellular Metals and Polymers (CMaP). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), 12-14 October 2004, Fürth, Germany, p.89-92.

 

Angel S, Bleck W, and Scholz P-F (2004). “SlipReactionFoamSintering (SRFS) - process: production, parameters, characterisation.” Proceedings of the Symposium on Cellular Metals and Polymers (CMaP). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), 12-14 October 2004, Fürth, Germany, p.85-88.

 

Clark J L, Cochran J K, Sanders T, and Lee K J (2002). “Metal honeycomb from oxide paste: maraging steel and super Invar structure and properties.” Processing and Properties of Lightweight Cellular Materials and Structures. Proceedings of the Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), 17-21 February 2002, Seattle, Washington, p.137-146.

 

Cochran J K, Lee K J, McDowell D, and Sanders T (2002). “Multifunctional metallic honeycombs by thermal chemical processing.” Processing and Properties of Lightweight Cellular Materials and Structures. Proceedings of the Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), 17-21 February 2002, Seattle, Washington, p.127-136.

 

 

2.4. Cost Reduction

 

Kanetake, N., Kobashi, M., and Tsuda, S. (2008). “Foaming behavior of aluminum precursor produced from machined chip waste.” MetFoam 2007 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams, 63-66.

 

Baumeister, J., Weise, J., Jeswein, A., Busse, M., and Haesche, M. (2008). “Metal foam production from ALMg4.5Mn recycling machining chips by means of thixocasting and the effects of different additives for stabilization.” MetFoam 2007 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams, 83-86.

 

Kashihara M, Yonetani H, Suzuki S, Hun S K, Kim S Y, Kawamura Y, and Nakajima H (2007). “Fabrication of lotus-type porous carbon-steel by continuous casting technique in nitrogen atmosphere.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.201-204.

 

Runkle J C (1999). “Ultra-light structural steel from metal foams.” Office of Naval Research. N00014-99-M-0022.