3. Material properties and Modeling

3.1. Experimental Testing of Mechanical Properties

 

3.1.a. Powder Metallurgy

 

Reinfried M, Quadbeck P, Stephani G, and Kieback B (2009). “Constitution of the metallic polyhedron-cell-structure.” Metfoam. 2009.

 

Aly M S, Fukasawa Y, Morishita K, Okuda H, Ochiai S, Kato K, Kita K, and Honma K (2007). “Determination of the stress acting on the individaul cells of open-cell stainless steel foams.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.157-160.

 

Gauthier M (2007). “Structure and properties of open-cell 316L stainless steel foams produced by a powder metallurgy-based process.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.149-152.

 

Shirzadi A A, Kocak M, and Wallach E R (2004). “Joining stainless steel metal foams.” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining. 9(3):277-299.

 

Park C and Nutt SR (2002). “Strain rate sensitivity and defects in steel foam.” Materials Science and Engineering A. A323:358-366.

 

Park C and Nutt SR (2001). “Anisotropy and strain localization in steel foam.” Materials Science and Engineering A. A299:68-74.

 

Park C and Nutt SR (2001). “Effects of process parameters on steel foam synthesis.” Materials Science and Engineering A. A297:62-68.

 

Park C and Nutt SR (2000). “PM synthesis and properties of steel foams.” Materials Science and Engineering A. A288:111-118.

 

3.1.b. Hollow Spheres

 

Brown JA, Vendra LJ, and Rabiei A (2010). “Bending properties of Al-steel and steel-steel composite metal foams.” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. Online:1 July 2010.

 

Lhuissier P, Salvo L and Brechet Y (2010). “Sintered hollow spheres: random stacking behaviour under uniaxial tensile loading.” Scripta Materiala 63:277-280.

 

Caty O, Maire E, Douillard T, Bertino P, Dejaeger R, and Bouchet R (2009). “Experimental determination of the macroscopic fatigue properties of metal hollow sphere structures.” Materials Letters 63:1131-1134.

 

Lhuissier P, Fallet A, Salvo L, and Brechet Y (2009). “Quasistatic mechanical behaviour of stainless steel hollow sphere foam: macroscopic properties and damage mechanisms followed by X-ray tomography.” Materials Letters 63:1113-1116.

 

Rabiei A and Vendra L J (2009). “A comparison of composite metal foam's properties and other comparable metal foams.” Materials Letters 63:533-536.

 

Fallet A, Lhuissier P, Salvo L, and Brechet Y (2008). “Mechanical behaviour of metallic hollow spheres foam.”Advanced Engineering Materials 10(9):858-862.

 

 

Gao Z Y, Yu T X, and Zhao H (2008). “Mechanical behavior of metallic hollow sphere materials: experimental study.” Journal of Aerospace Engineering. October 2008:206-216.

 

Fallet A, Salvo L, and Brechet Y (2007). “Metallic hollow spheres foam: structure and mechanics.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.343-346.

 

Friedl O, Motz C, Peterlik H, Puchegger S, Reger N, and Pippan R (2007). “Experimental investigation of mechanical properties of metallic hollow sphere structures.” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 39(1):135-146.

 

Yu T X (2007). “The dependence of the energy-absorption capacity of metal hollow sphere materials on their relative density.” Key Engineering Materials 340:389-396.

 

Friedl O, Motz C, Farber J, Stoiber M, and Pippan R (2004). “Tension and compression behaviour of stainless steel (316L) hollow sphere structures.” Proceedings of the Symposium on Cellular Metals and Polymers (CMaP). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), 12-14 October 2004, Fürth, Germany, p.135-138.

 

Clark J L, Hurysz K M, Lee K J, Cochran J K, and Sanders Jr T H (1998). “Stainless steel hollow sphere foams – fabrication, carburization, and properties.” MetFoam 1999:171-178.

 

3.1.c. Other Processes

 

Fathy A, Ahmed A, and Morgan H (2007). “Characterization and optimization of steel foam produced by slip casting process.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.161-164.

 

Lee B-K, Jeon I, Kang K-J (2007). “Compressive characteristics of WBK truss cores.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, p.177-180.

 

Kostornov A G, Podrezov N, Bezymyannyi Y G, Moroz A L, Klimenko N, and Borovik V G (2006). “Stanliess-steel porous-layered and framework fiber-powder composites.” Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics. 45(1-2):35-39.

 

Grujicic M and Zhao C L (2005). “A statistical analysis of the mechanical and electronic-transport properties of the stochastic porous fibrous materials.” Journal of Materials Science. 40:5181-5190.

 

Hayes A M, McDowell D L, and Cochran J K (2002). “Processing and Properties of Lightweight Cellular Materials and Structures. Proceedings of the Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), 17-21 February 2002, Seattle, Washington, p.223-232.

 

3.1.d. Testing Techniques

 

 

Kadoi, K., Nakae, H., Banhart, J., Babcsán, N., and García-Moreno, F. (2007). “Methodology for the in-situ observation of alporas foams using X-ray radioscopy.” MetFoam 2007 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams, 111-114.

 

Solórzano, E., Rodriguez-Perez, M., García-Moreno, F., Babcsán, N., and Banhart, J. (2007). “Aluminium foaming monitored by far-infrared thermography: Temperature gradients and bubble rupture.” MetFoam 2007 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams, 79-82.

 

Krupp U, Aegerter J, Ohrndorf A, Guillen T, Danninger A, Hipke T, Hohlfeld J, and Reinfired M (2007). “Development of a standard for compression testing of cellular materials.” MetFoam 2007: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams. 5-7 September 2007, Montreal, Canada, 407-410.

 

Mohr D and Doyoyo M (2003). “A new method for the biaxial testing of cellular solids.” Experimental Mechanics. 2003:173-182.

 

Wierzbicki T and Doyoyo M (2003). “Determination of the local stress-strain response of foams.” Transactions of the ASME. 70:204-211.

 

Andrews E W, Gioux G, Onck P, and Gibson L J (2001). “Size effects in ductile cellular solids. Part II: experimental results.” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. 43:701-713.

 

Onck P R, Andrews E W, and Gibson L J (2001). “Size effects in ductile cellular solids. Part I: modeling.” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. 43:681-699.

 

3.2. Microstructure and Theoretical Modeling

 

3.2.a. Hollow Spheres

 

Ochsner A (2009). “Numerical Simulation of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Perforated Hollow Sphere Structures (PHSS).” AIP Conference Proceedings. 1177:16-30

 

Speich M, Rimkus W, Merkel M, and Öchsner A (2009). “Large deformation of metallic hollow spheres.” Materials Science Forum 623:105-117.

 

Karagiozova D, Yu T X, and Gao Z Y (2007). “Stress-strain relationship for metal hollow sphere materials as a function of their relative density.” Transactions of the ASME 74:898-907.

 

Kari S, Berger H, Rodriguez-Ramos R, and Gabbert U (2007). “Computational evaluation of effective material properties of composites reinforced by randomly distributed spherical particles.” Composite Structures 77:223-231.

 

Kepets M, Lu T J, and Dowling A P (2007). “Modeling of the role of defects in sintered FeCrAlY foams.” Acta Mech Sin 23:511-529.

 

Karagiozova D, Yu T X, and Gao Z Y (2006). “Modelling of MHS cellular solid in large strains.” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48:1273-1286

 

Franeck J and Landgraf G (2004). “Determination of linear and non-linear mechanical properties of sintered hollow-sphere structures.” Proceedings of the Symposium on Cellular Metals and Polymers (CMaP). Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), 12-14 October 2004, Fürth, Germany, p.139-142.

 

Gao Z Y, Yu T X, and Karagiozova D (2007). “Finite element simulations on the mechanical properties of MHS materials.”Acta Mech Sin 23:65-75.

 

Gasser S, Paun F, and Bechet Y (2004). “Finite elements computation for the elastic properties of a regular stacking of hollow spheres.” Materials Science and Engineering A. 379:240-244.

 

Gasser S, Paun F, Riffard L, and Brechet Y (2004). “Microplastic yield condition for a periodic stacking of hollow spheres.” Scripta Materiala 50:401-405.

 

Lim T-J, Smith B, and McDowell D L (2002). “Behavior of a random hollow sphere metal foam.” Acta Materiala 50:2867-2879

 

Sanders W S (2002). “Mechanical behavior of closed-cell and hollow-sphere metallic foams.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology (D.Sc. thesis). Advisor Gibson L J

 

Sanders W S and Gibson L J (2002). “Mechanics of BCC and FCC hollow-sphere foams.” Materials Science and Engineering A352:150-161.

 

Sanders W S and Gibson L J (2002). “Mechanics of hollow sphere foams.” Materials Science and Engineering A347:70-85

 

 

3.2.a.i. Random Close Packed Modeling

 

Desmond K W and Weeks E R (2009). “Random close packing of disks and spheres in confined geometries.” Physical Review E. 80:051305-051316.

 

Aste T and Weaire D L (2008). The Pursuit of Perfect Packing. Taylor and Francis, New York, NY.

 

Wouterse A and Philipse A P (2006). “Geometrical cluster ensemble analysis of random sphere packings.” The Journal of Chemical Physics. 125:194709:194719.

 

German R M (1989). Particle Packing Characteristics. Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ.

 

 

3.2.b. Other Models

 

Abrate S (2008). “Criteria for yielding or failure of cellular materials.” Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials 10:5-53.

 

Krupp U (2007). Fatigue Crack Propagation in Metals and Alloys: Microstructural Aspects of Modelling Concepts. Wiley-VCH.

 

Lopatnikov S L, Gama B A, and Gillespie Jr J W (2007). “Modeling the progressive collapse behavior of metal foams.” International Journal of Impact Engineering 34:587-595

 

Fazekas A, Dendievel R, Salvo L, and Brechet Y (2002). “Effect of microstructural topology upon the stiffness and strength of 2D cellular structures.” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44:2047-2066.

 

Illerhaus B, Jasiūnienė E, Kottar A, and Goebels J (2002). “3D micro tomography (microCT) of cellular metals using an up to 320KV X-ray tube.” Processing and Properties of Lightweight Cellular Materials and Structures. Proceedings of the Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), 17-21 February 2002, Seattle, Washington, p.271-280.

 

Kwon Y W, Cooke R E, and Park C (2002). “Representative unit-cell models for open-cell metal foams with or without elastic filler.” Materials Science and Engineering A343:63-70

 

Cooke R (2001). “Finite element modeling of metal foam structures subject to compressive loading.” Naval Postgraduate School (thesis). Adviser Kwon Y W

 

Smyshlyaev V P and Cherednichenko K D (2000). “On rigorous derivation of strain gradient effects in the overall behaviour of periodic heterogenous media.” Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 48:1325-1357.

 

 

3.2.c. Interrelating Mechanical Properties

Liu P S (2010). “Mechanical relations for porous metal foams under several typical loads of shearing, torsion and bending.” Materials Science and Engineering A. 527:7961-7966.

 

Liu P S and Chen G F (2008). “Mechanical relation of foamed metals under uniaxial and biaxial loads of collective tension and compression.” Materials Science and Engineering A. 507:190-193.

 

3.3. Dynamic Properties of Foams

 

Chakravarty, U. K. (2010). “An investigation on the dynamic response of polymeric, metallic, and biomaterial foams.” Composite Structures, 92(10), 2339-2344. 

 

Romero, P., Soboyejo, W., and Cuitiño, A. (2010). “Modeling of dynamically loaded open-cell metallic foams: Yielding, collapse, and strain rate effects.” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME, 77(3), 1-8.

 

Daoud, A. (2009). “Effect of strain rate on compressive properties of novel Zn12Al based composite foams containing hybrid pores.” Materials Science and Engineering A, 525(1-2), 7-17.

 

Liu, Y., Yu, J., Zheng, Z., and Li, J. (2009). “A numerical study on the rate sensitivity of cellular metals.” International Journal of Solids and Structures, 46(22-23), 3988-3998.